Rafael Baena-Nieto was born in Spain. At the age of eleven, he received his first double bass lessons. In 2007 he became a junior student at the Real Conservatorio Profesional de Música Manuel de Falla de Cádiz with Francisco Lobo Fernandez, from 2012 he studied at the Conservatorio Superior de Música Manuel Castillo de Sevilla with Eduardo Rodriguez.
In 2018, Rafael Baena-Nieto moved to Germany to continue his music studies. He is currently studying for a master's degree with Frithjof-Martin Grabner at the Hochschule für Musik Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy Leipzig.
He attended masterclasses for examples with Diego Zecharies, Olivier Thierry and Klaus Stoll. In addition, he was a regular contributor to Camerata instrumental del Gran Teatro Falla, the Philharmonic Orchestra of Madrid, the Tótem Ensemble and other. Since September 2018 he is a scholarship holder of the Dual Orchestra Academy Thuringia.